ONLINE LEARNING

Wayward Souls: United States Naval Vessels under the Rising Sun

By Ross Patterson II

 

 

During the early days of the Second World War, the United States military was on the defensive. Across the Pacific, the forces of Imperial Japan surged forward, assaulting American positions and overrunning bases. Desperate American soldiers, sailors, and airmen fought on as best they could with dwindling supplies, destroying what equipment they could not continue using. But destroyed did not necessarily mean lost. As the forces of the Rising Sun overran Shanghai, Guam, Java, and the Philippines, Japanese naval personnel turned their eyes towards the variety of vessels often lying just below the surface.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

CHAPTER 1

PR-3 USS WAKE
SURRENDERED DECEMBER 8, 1941
RECOVERED AUGUST 1945


CHAPTER 2

AG-27 USS ROBERT L. BARNES
CAPTURED DECEMBER 10, 1941
RECOVERED AUGUST 1945

 

USS YP-17
CAPTURED DECEMBER 10, 1945
FATE UNKNOWN

CHAPTER 3

DD-224 USS STEWART
SCUTTLED MARCH 2, 1942
RECOVERED AUGUST 1945

CHAPTER 4

AM-9 USS FINCH
SUNK APRIL 10, 1942
DESTROYED JANUARY 12, 1945

CHAPTER 5

AT-55 USS GENESEE

SCUTTLED MAY 5, 1942

DESTROYED NOVEMBER 6, 1944

CHAPTER 6

PR-7 USS LUZON

SCUTTLED MAY 6, 1942

SCUTTLED FEBRUARY 5, 1945

 

 

CHAPTER 1

PR-3 USS WAKE

SURRENDERED DECEMBER 8, 1941

RECOVERED AUGUST 1945

USS Wake off Shanghai in 1931.  United States Navy Photograph

The USS Wake was the first American ship to find herself in the Imperial Japanese Navy, having been captured intact on December 8, 1941 as the only United States Navy vessel to surrender during World War II.  Built in 1927 by the Kiangnan Dock and Engineering works of Shanghai as the USS Guam, River Gunboat PR-3 was originally built for the United States Asiatic Fleet to patrol up Chinese waterways and protect Western interests in Hankow, part of modern Wuhan.  As the Japanese pushed further into China, the Guam began to act as an observation vessel, attempting to pick up Japanese transmissions and observe their military movements.  Unsurprisingly, this put the vessel on the Empire’s ‘radar,’ and the small ship was unofficially assigned a larger Japanese ‘escort’ when it left port.  Renamed the USS Wake in January of 1941, PR-3 was recalled to Shanghai on November 25 of that year, with most of its crew transferred to the Philippines. Command was given to Yangtze River veteran Lieutenant Commander Columbus Darwin Smith, with a reduced crew of fourteen men aboard instead of the Wake’s maximum contingent of fifty-nine.

The future USS Wake, then known as USS Guam, under construction in Shanghai.
Library of Congress Photograph

USS Wake while still known as the USS Guam on patrol in December of 1927.
United States Navy Photograph

Smith, along with the other Western officers in Shanghai, received curious calls from Japanese officers the day before the attack on Pearl Harbor, stating that the Imperial troops wished to bring turkey dinners to crews stationed in the city. Many commanders unknowingly gave their positions and dispositions away hours before the surprise attack. Smith was ashore when he learned of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, racing back to find the Wake surrounded at her moorings. Her tiny compliment of sailors tried unsuccessfully to scuttle the ship, but were quickly forced to surrender. With the Americans led off to a nearby prison camp, the Wake was refitted and rechristened as the IJN Tatara, officially entering Japanese service on January 26, 1942.

Japanese Naval Landing Force Personnel celebrating the surrender of the USS Wake next to the ship’s ensign on December 8, 1941.
United States Navy Photograph

USS Wake off Shanghai as IJN Tatara, now flying the Imperial Japanese ensign.  Japanese Public Domain Photograph

USS Wake in January 1942 as IJN Tatara.  Note the Imperial Mum on the bow.  Kure Naval Museum Photograph

Continuing to patrol the rivers of China under her new masters, the Tatara soldiered on in relative obscurity.  She survived several air attacks by American forces throughout the war, and was discovered relatively intact by United States Navy personnel in August of 1945.  Given to the Chinese Nationalists in 1946 and rechristened for the fourth time as the Tai Yuan, the aging gunboat fell into the hands of the Chinese communists in 1949, fading once more into a murky obscurity.

CHAPTER 2

AG-27 USS ROBERT L. BARNES
CAPTURED DECEMBER 10, 1941
RECOVERED AUGUST 1945

USS YP-17
CAPTURED DECEMBER 10, 1945
FATE UNKNOWN

Often overshadowed by the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Invasion of the Philippines, and the fall of Wake Island, the American territory of Guam was attacked and overrun over the course of two days at the start of American involvement in the Second World War.  Over 5,900 Imperial Japanese soldiers and marines, backed by a fleet of twenty vessels and covered by a screen of attacking aircraft, faced just 547 American sailors and marines armed with aging equipment and lacking their largest vessel, the cargo ship USS Gold Star, which was off in the Philippines to pick up supplies and Christmas presents. This reduced naval defenses to the minelayer USS Penguin, patrol boats YP-16 and YP-17, and the oil depot ship Robert L. Barnes.  Amidst the aerial attack and land invasion of December 8-10, 1941, the Penguin was scuttled in deep water and the YP-16 burned.  But the other two members of the ‘Guam Navy’ would live to see another day.

Built in Minnesota by the McDougall Duluth Ship Building Company during the First World War, the USS Robert L. Barnes was commissioned into the United States Navy on October 19, 1918 as a unique ‘sea-going canal boat’ oiler.  Acquired too late to serve in the Great War, the Barnes began its career with the Fifth Naval District on March of 1919, remaining on the East Coast until the fall of that year.  In the Spring of 1920, she began her Pacific service, and arrived off Guam for the first time on April 27.  The Barnes would remain at this post for the next two decades as an oil storage vessel, only leaving the island to visit the Philippines for overhaul work.  When the Japanese invaded, the aging ship was moored at her usual post, damaged and leaking from various strafing runs.

USS Robert L. Barnes off Guam in the 1930s. United States Navy Photograph

USS Robert L. Barnes as seen from astern.  United States Navy Photograph

YP-17, the former seventy-five foot Coast Guard Patrol Boat CG-275, was transferred to the United States Navy on June 21, 1933.  Built at the Lake Union Dry Dock and Machine Works of Seattle in 1925, her duty at the dawn of World War II was that of a yard patrol craft.  Together with her sister ship YP-16, she arrived at Guam aboard the oiler USS Ramapo on October 22, 1940.  Both craft were caught in the open by Japanese planes, resulting in damage.  Unlike YP-16, however, the crew of YP-17 was unable to burn down their wooden ship to prevent capture.  As the American sailors were led away to internment camps, their small vessel was taken by their Japanese counterparts.

Side profile of the Seventy-Five Foot “Six Bitter” Patrol Boat design YP-17 was built as.  United States Coast Guard Image

Coast Guard Patrol Boats at Port Townsend, Washington in the late 1920s.  The leftmost ship, CG-274, was the ship prior to YP-17 (CG-275), while the ship to her stern, CG-267, would serve alongside YP-17 off Guam as USS YP-16.  Public Domain Image

Aerial view of Singapore Harbor on September 26, 1945. Australian War Memorial Photograph 119758

YP-17 was struck from the Naval Register on July 24, 1942, and appears to have been lost or destroyed at some point during the war.  Her fellow ‘Guam Navy’ veteran, the Robert L. Barnes, had a slightly longer existence.  The Japanese chose to repair the low profile oiler, and brought her back to the newly captured port of Singapore.  She was still there when the British retook the city, officially identified in August of 1945.  Having been struck from the Naval Register three years prior, the Barnes was sold to act as a mercantile vessel for British companies.  Known as SS Fortune and M.T.S. No. 2 in the post war period, the aged vessel was finally decommissioned in 1949, meeting with the scrapper’s torch in 1950 after three decades of service. 

CHAPTER 3

DD-224 USS Stewart
SCUTTLED MARCH 2, 1942
RECOVERED AUGUST 1945

Not all seized American ships were taken in the initial days of invasion.  The Asiatic Fleet, though battered, continued to operate as best as it could under heavy Japanese assault.  During the Arcadia Conference of December 22, 1941 to January 14, 1942, the surviving allied forces were placed under a newly formed American-British-Dutch-Australian Command in an effort to maintain a ‘Malay Barrier’ in the southwestern Pacific.  American vessels that had survived the initial onslaught quickly joined up with the remaining multinational Allied forces, to include the destroyer USS Stewart.

Built by William Cramp and Sons of Philadelphia and launched on March 4, 1920, the USS Stewart was a Clemson Class ‘four stacker’ destroyer.  With a length of over 314 feet and armed with an impressive array of four four inch guns, one three inch gun, and twelve torpedo tubes, the Stewart joined a fleet of numerous cutting edge destroyers now surplus to requirements when commissioned on September 15, 1920. Given the secession of hostilities after the November 11, 1918 Armistice, a vast majority of the United States Navy’s mass-produced destroyer fleet found themselves mothballed, with many being scrapped or repurposed during the interwar years as designs and technology gradually rendered them obsolete.  This would not be the case for the Stewart, however.  After briefly serving along the Atlantic Coast and Caribbean during the early 1920s, the Stewart departed from port on June 20, 1922, not for a mothball berth, but for the Asiatic Fleet.

USS Stewart in the 1930s.  United States Navy Photograph

By the time hostilities between the United States and Japan had broken out, the Stewart had been operating in Chinese waters for over nineteen years.  The destroyer and her crew had even voyaged to Japan, aiding in the relief of Japanese victims of the 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake.  When news of the attack on Pearl Harbor reached the Stewart, she was actually south of her usual Chinese home, docked at Tarakan Roads on the island of Borneo.  Initially tasked with escorting vessels, the Stewart fell in with the American cruiser Marblehead for several operations until the latter was damaged by air attacks in early February of 1942.  Then, on February 14, the Stewart fatefully transferred to the command of Admiral Karel Doorman.

Moving between the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Bangka, the Stewart and her compatriots endured multiple attacks culminating in the February 19-20, 1942 nighttime Battle of the Badung Strait.  Leading an attack group, the Stewart was badly crippled by opposing Japanese destroyers.  Shellfire tore into the galley and torpedo racks before a shell struck below the waterline, popping riveted plates and filling the engine room with two feet of water.  Down but not out, the battered vessel limped back to the port of Surabaya on February 22 for repairs.

Surabaya was already under persistent aerial attack when the Stewart headed into a floating dry dock, where the poor placement of keel blocks caused the destroyer to roll on her side before work could even begin.  Knowing the port facilities were doomed, the crew was evacuated, explosive charges were set off, and the dry dock scuttled as allied troops pulled out in the face of another Japanese advance.  And it was there the Stewart would lay for some time, until the changing tides of war would cause the Japanese to reexamine the contents of the derelict dry dock lying under the surface of Surabaya’s waters.

USS Stewart after rolling off her keel blocks in the Surabaya dry dock.  Public Domain Photograph

The Imperial Japanese Navy’s 102nd Naval Construction Department at Surabaya decided in late 1942 that the Stewart was, in fact, a valuable salvage opportunity.  In February of 1943, the dry dock and its contents were raised, and the damaged American destroyer rebuilt as IJN Patrol Boat No. 102. Commissioned on September 20, 1943, the ex-Stewart was now over nine feet longer, 605 tons heavier, and refitted with a mix of Japanese and captured Dutch weaponry.  Soon, Allied pilots began reporting the unmistakable shape of a ‘four-stacker’ destroyer with Japanese paint and a trunked funnel escorting ships with the Imperial Japanese Southwest Area Fleet. 

The wayward American vessel was even sent to the main Japanese shipyard at Kure for repairs and upgrades in November of 1944 before deploying south.  American advances into the Philippines redirected the ship towards the Korean Peninsula, where American aircraft struck on April 28, 1945.  Damaged and in need of repair, Patrol Boat No. 102 once again returned to Kure, eventually being sent to the nearby Hiro Bay.  It was here that she was found by thoroughly surprised American sailors entering the bay in August of 1945.

JN Patrol Boat No. 102 at Kure, Japan on March 12, 1945. Kure Naval Museum Photograph

The former USS Stewart in Japanese waters after the country’s surrender. Note the “P 102” faintly visible under the painted Japanese flag amidships, and the repainted American destroyer number on the bow. United States Navy Photograph

After inspection and repairs, it was decided that the long-lost Stewart should rejoin her original Navy.  On October 29, 1945, she was officially recommissioned as DD-224 in the Kure shipyard, now known by her hull number as her former name had been granted to another destroyer during the period of her presumed destruction.  In 1946, she began the long journey back to America, slowed down when her aging engines failed near the island of Guam.  With the help of tow ships, the war weary vessel finally arrived in San Francisco, only to be struck from the Naval Register less than a month later on April 17.  Towed out to sea on May 24, the valiant ship was pounded once again by American aircraft before finally being sunk by the guns of submarine chaser PC-799.

The DD-224 Recommisioning Ceremony at Hiro Wan, Japan on October 29, 1945, with USS Compton moored alongside.  National Archives Photograph

Lieutenant Commander Harold Ellison reading his orders as part of the October 29, 1945 Recommissioning Ceremony aboard DD-224. National Archives Photograph

DD-224 in 1946 shortly after her arrival in the San Francisco Bay.  United States Navy Photograph

Official Photograph of the aerial attack on DD-224 on May 24, 1946, when the ship was disposed of as a target. National Archives Photograph

DD-224 beginning to sink as it is targeted by 40mm gunners aboard PC-799 on May 24, 1946.  United States Navy Photograph

CHAPTER 4

AM-9 USS FINCH
SUNK APRIL 10, 1942
DESTROYED JANUARY 12, 1945

The doomed defense of the Philippines has been the subject of many books and films, with the images of Corregidor and the Bataan Death March etched into the public conscious.  Soldiers fought with whatever material they could find, airmen valiantly flew sorties using patched up airframes, and sailors did their best to keep their vessels in the fight for as long as possible.  One such ship was the USS Finch.

A Lapwing Class minesweeper, the USS Finch was built by the Standard Shipbuilding Company of New York in 1918 and commissioned as the Navy’s ninth dedicated minesweeper on September 10, 1918.  Built too late to see wartime action, the Finch began her career helping clear the North Sea Mine Barrage in 1919 and 1920.  Returning to America, the Finch was transferred to the West Coast before departing San Francisco on August 20, 1921 for duty with the Asiatic Fleet.  Operating between China and the Philippines for the next twenty years, increasing tensions in the region saw the Finch aid in defensive posturing and reconnaissance missions.  On the eve of the Japanese invasion, the minesweeper and her sister ship Heron found themselves back at their winter quarters in Manila Bay.

USS Finch off the coast of Tsingtao, China in the summer of 1934.  United States Navy Photograph

As the Japanese invasion of the Philippines commenced on December 8, 1941, the Finch set out into Manila Bay, sweeping for mines planted by Japanese submarines or aircraft.  At least one enemy plane was brought down by her gunners, but the lightly defended vessel did its best to avoid drawing attention, seeking to keep the lanes clear for other ships and evacuees.  As supplies dwindled, the Finch slowly found herself starved for fuel.  By the start of April 1942 the fuel tanks were finally running dry, so the crew decided to take their faithful boat to the shallow waters off the eastern coast of Corregidor.  On April 9, a Japanese bomber took notice of the Finch.

The bomb that sunk the Finch was not a direct hit, instead impacting in the water beside her hull.  No one was killed, but the shockwave and shrapnel opened up enough seams in her hull to force an evacuation.  By April 10, the Finch was abandoned, and her seventy-eight sailors left her semi-sunken hull to join the doomed defense of Corregidor.  A little under a month later on May 6, the wayward crew of the Finch was forced to surrender with the rest on the garrison.  Two days later, Japanese naval engineers arrived beside the derelict minesweeper.

The wreck of the USS Finch as seen from Caballo Island near Corregidor in May of 1942. Japanese Public Domain Photograph

The Imperial Japanese Navy’s 103rd Repair Facility at Cavite in the Philippines raised the wreck and transferred the hull to Maizuru Naval Base on the Japanese home island of Honshu.  After nearly a year of work resurrecting the damaged American vessel, the rechristened Patrol Boat No. 103 was commissioned into the Imperial Japanese Navy on April 1, 1943.  One month later, she returned to the Philippines under the command of her former adversaries.  For the next two years, the former Finch plied the southwest Pacific, escorting Japanese convoys.  American advances slowly pushed her operations further westward, eventually causing a shift of operations to Indochina.  After avoiding numerous attacks from her former compatriots, the quarter century old ship’s luck finally ran out on January 12, 1945.

While escorting Japanese Convoy SATA-05, carrier aircraft of United States Navy Task Force 38 pounced on the old minesweeper off Cape Padaran.  Strafing runs quickly knocked out her anti-aircraft guns, and follow-up attacks led to the detonation of depth charges along the ship’s stern.  The shattered remains settled into twenty-eight feet of water alongside five other IJN vessels of the convoy, another casualty of the late war offensives in the Pacific.

United States Navy Task Force 38 carriers on December 8, 1944 at anchor in the Ulithi Atoll.  Thirty-five days later, some of the aircraft visible would sink the former USS Finch. 
United States Navy Photograph

CHAPTER 5

AT-55 USS GENESEE
SCUTTLED MAY 5, 1942
DESTROYED NOVEMBER 6, 1944

Ships of all sizes and vintages found their way into Asiatic Fleet service over the years.  One such vessel was a 170 foot tugboat, built in 1905 by the Maryland Steel Company for the Philadelphia and Reading Railway.  Originally named the SS Monocacy, the vessel was acquired by the United States Navy during the First World War and commissioned as the fleet tug USS Genesee on November 10, 1917.  Within ten days she was sent to Ireland, and spent her first two years of service in European and Mediterranean waters.  In 1920, it was decided that the Genesee should serve with the Asiatic Fleet’s Philippine section, arriving at her new home on September 7, 1920.  For the next twenty years, the little vessel plied the waters around Manila, ferrying personnel, towing practice targets, and acting as a harbor tug.  When the Japanese attacked on December 8, 1941, the Genesee was resting peacefully at the Cavite Naval Base in Manila.

USS Genesee at sea in the mid-1920s.  United States Navy Photograph

The Cavite Navy Yard on fire following a Japanese air raid on December 10, 1941.  United States Army Signal Corps Photograph

Under the command of Chief Boatswain Eugene L. Boyd, the Genesee did its best to contribute to the faltering defenses around Manila.  As with most of her fellow auxiliary vessels, dwindling resources forced the crew’s hand, and the tugboat was scuttled off of Corregidor on May 5, 1942.  Upon the American garrison’s surrender to the Japanese, the newly formed Imperial Japanese Navy No. 103 Repair Facility at Cavite began examining the wrecks of Manila Bay, looking for suitable salvage.  The largely intact Genesee was one of the vessels that caught their eye.

After around a year of repair and modification, the resurrected tugboat was registered by the Japanese Navy as Patrol Boat No. 107 on April 20, 1944.  Assigned to the Sasebo Naval District, the vessel would undergo several more months of retrofitting and improvement before receiving its full acceptance by the Japanese Navy on October 28, 1944.  Now equipped with depth charges, anti-aircraft guns, a searchlight, and detection equipment, No. 107 once again patrolled the waters of Manila Bay.  There would be no period of peaceful existence for the vessel and her crew, however, as the Americans were on the way back to reclaim what they had lost.

On November 5, 1944, No. 107 set out into Manila Bay, only to come under attack by sixteen American fighter planes from United States Navy Task Force 38.  Strafed and set on fire, the stricken craft was towed to Ambil Island for repair.  The next morning, she set out to return to Manila.

Manila Bay under attack on November 5, 1944, as seen from one of USS Ticonderoga‘s VB-80 aircraft.  United States Navy Photograph

Around six hours after repairs were deemed completed, the beleaguered ship was once again in the sights of American aviators.  This time, six dive bombers fell upon their former compatriot, scoring direct hits to the bridge and engine room.  Broken and burning, the old hull slipped beneath the waves less than twenty miles west of where she had been scuttled two and a half years prior.

An SB2C Helldiver from the USS Hancock flying operations in the Manila Bay area during November of 1944. 
Six of these aircraft finally sunk the former USS Genesee. United States Navy Photograph

CHAPTER 6

PR-7 USS LUZON
SCUTTLED MAY 6, 1942
SCUTTLED FEBRUARY 5, 1945

One more member of the Asiatic Fleet would fall into Japanese hands in the aftermath of the Invasion of the Philippines, a gunboat aptly named the USS Luzon. Built at the Kiangnan Dock and engineering Works in Shanghai, the 508 ton Yangtze River gunboat was commissioned into the United States Navy on June 28, 1928.  For the next decade, the Luzon would serve as the flagship of the Yangtze River Patrol before being reassigned as the Shanghai station ship in December 1938.  There she maintained a watch over American interests until receiving new orders in November of 1941 to depart for the Philippines.  With the commander of the Yangtze forces, Admiral William A. Glassford aboard, the Luzon departed her longtime home on November 29, 1941.  As the vessel and its sister ships slowly crossed the Formosa Straits, they found themselves in sight of an alarming Japanese convoy.  A day later, a massive typhoon battered the riverine craft, causing damage to several vessels.  The small convoy of American vessels became strung out in the South China Sea, slowly reaching Manila amidst the dawn of the Japanese attack.

USS Luzon at Hankow, China in 1932.  United States Navy Photograph

USS Luzon while run aground on the Yangtze River in 1929, showing her shallow draft hull that made the journey to the Philippines so perilous.  United States Navy Photograph

With no possibility of return, Admiral Glassford dissolved the Yangtze River Patrol and turned his vessels to the defense of Manila.  The Luzon was tasked with carrying out patrols around Bataan and Corregidor, eventually pulling back out of Manila Bay as the Japanese overran the naval base at Cavite.  The gunboat did not remain idle, however, sallying forth alone or in pairs to engage the Japanese as best as they could.  Time and supplies, however, was not on her side.

With the fall of Bataan on April 9, 1942, the noose began to shrink around the remaining Americans stationed on Corregidor.  On April 10, the Luzon pulled up to the nearby small island of Caballo, dropping off crewmen to help man two of Fort Hughes’s massive fourteen inch disappearing guns.  With fuel and ammunition dwindling, the Luzon and other remaining American vessels slowly withdrew to the shores of Corregidor itself.  When the final surrender of the island occurred on May 6, the Luzon quickly joined gunboat USS Oahu and minesweeper USS Quail in steaming out into the bay, where all three ships scuttled themselves to avoid capture.  But while the Oahu and Quail would remain undisturbed, the Luzon would not remain underwater for long.

The island of Corregidor as seen from Fort Hughes’ Battery Gillespie on Cabalo Island in May of 1942 after the American surrender.  This was one of the guns manned by the crew of USS Luzon.  Japanese Public Domain Photograph

In less than a month, the Imperial Japanese Navy’s newly established No. 103 Repair Facility at Cavite had recovered the sunken gunboat, planning to turn the vessel into an improved submarine chaser.  On August 1, 1942, the refloated vessel was officially renamed the IJN Karatsu, carrying out trials and undergoing upgrades through October of that year.  Based once again out of the Philippines, the Karatsu now saw itself carrying out escort duty for Japanese warships and transports, supporting anti-guerilla operations, and hunting American submarines.  She was regrettably successful at this final task, sinking the USS Cisco with all hands on September 28, 1943.  But this act of betrayal would not go unpunished.  On March 3, 1944, it was the wayward gunboat who was in the sights of a submarine.

IJN Karatsu, formerly the USS Luzon, at the Cavite Naval Port on August 1, 1942.  Kure Naval Museum Photograph

USS Cisco off the coast of Portsmouth, New Hampshire on June 19, 1943, three months before being sunk by IJN Karatsu.  United States Navy Photograph

The USS Narwhal, on patrol near the Philippine island of Mindanao, caught sight of the Karatsu and launched a torpedo.  The weapon detonated with tremendous effectiveness, utterly destroying the sections forward of the bridge.  Badly damaged and with several casualties, the crippled ship was slowly towed back to Manila.  By March 25, she was once again undergoing repairs at the No. 103 Repair Facility.  The extensive damage and approaching threat of an American invasion delayed her resurrection for almost a year, not reaching a satisfactory condition until January of 1945.  By this point her fate was all but sealed.  Orders were given on January 16 for the ship to withdraw as soon as possible, but the American military was moving too quickly for her Japanese maintainers and crew to accomplish this.  On February 5, 1945, the Karatsu was once again sent to the bottom of Manila Bay with a scuttling charge, serving as a block ship against the return of her old companions to their former home.

USS Narwhal on April 3, 1943 during trials following upgrades at the Mare Island Navy Yard.  A year later she would cripple the former USS Luzon during her tenth war patrol.  United States Navy Photograph

Aerial view of Manila Bay in February of 1945 with several of the scuttled Japanese block ships visible around the harbors and piers.  National Archive Photograph